Douglas Wilson R*
Department of Medical Genetics, University of Calgary, CanadaFulltext PDF
Introduction: Investigative curiosity is required following the identification of Congenital Talipes Tquinovarus (CTEV) to identify the etiology for appropriate prenatal and post-natal counseling as it has an important impact on reproductive decisions, treatment management and recurrence risk. Material and Methods: This review article is a structured review using Pub Med with CTEV key word identifiers for consideration of the detection, prevalence, etiology, treatment, and outcomes. Review for isolated and complex CTEV was used as CTEV is common with many genetic syndromes/ associations/sequences. Review period was concentrated for 2000 to 2020 but earlier cohorts were included for prevalence evaluation. Results: The prevalence for CTEV was 0.4 to 7.0 per 1000 live births with ethic differences (Chinese 0.39; Polynesian/Pacific Islanders 7.0). Etiologies were variable considering idiopathic and non-idiopathic (fetal environment-fetal mechanical-fetal external exposure-fetal genetic) for both isolated and complex-multiple anomaly cohorts. Genetic etiologies included chromosomal, molecular mutation, and syndromes (dominant; recessive; X-linked). Consensus for neonatal treatment is use of manipulation and serial casting initially with surgical techniques for primary treatment failure and post ambulation recurrence. Conclusion: Maternal smoking and a family history of CTEV have been identified as risk factors in affected children. The etiologies for complex CTEV have been shown to have multiple fetal environmental, mechanical, external exposure, and genetic/molecular etiologies. Many genetic syndromes have CTEV as a component of the syndrome multiple anomalies. Treatment supports the use of a non-surgical approach (Ponseti)
Douglas Wilson R. Congenital Talipes Equinovarus: Requires Investigative Curiosity to Understand the Definition for Detection, Prevalence, Etiology, Treatment, and Outcomes. Clin Surg. 2020; 5: 2988..