Zhiping Feng1, Yu Lu2, Yanmei Yin1, Yucen Wan1, Shi Sun1, Lina Zhao1 and Lixin Zhang1*
1Department of Rehabilitation, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, P.R. China
2Department of Rehabilitation, The People’s Hospital of Liaoning Province, P.R. China
Objective: To observe the effect of low-dose Ultra-Short-Wave (USW) therapy combined with Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell (BMSC) transplantation on regulating macrophage polarization after Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) to reduce the early inflammatory response, and to discuss its potential mechanism. Methods: Super-Paramagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) were used to label BMSC and observed the labeling effect through Prussian blue staining. About 120 Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: sham-operated, control, USW, BMSC, and USW+BMSC that were performed to spinal cord contusion. Rats in the BMSC and USW+BMSC groups received BMSC transplantation, while those in the USW and USW+BMSC were exposed to USW radiation. Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) tests were operated before the surgery and at 1-day, 3-day and 7-day intervals after SCI. The expressions of the ED1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase, Arginase1, markers of activated macrophages in the damage area were assessed with immunohistochemistry. Results: Four weeks after SCI, BMSCs survived and had irregular polymorphic forms. Super- Paramagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) were also visible in the cytoplasm. Compared with the BMSC group, cell survival was better in the USW+BMSC group. Seven days after SCI, rats in the USW and BMSC+USW groups had better Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scales cores compared with the control group. Compared with the USW and BMSC groups, Ectodermal Dysplasia 1 (ED- 1) expression was decreased in the USW+BMSCs group at 1 week after surgery. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the BMSC and USW+BMSC groups was lower than that in the USW group 3 days after SCI. Arginase 1 (Arg 1) expression in the BMSC and USW+BMSC groups was higher than that in the control group. Conclusion: Low-dose USW therapy with BMSC transplantation can modulate the inflammatory response after SCI, and may be a key component of a combined approach to accelerate nerve regeneration and functional recovery. The correct dose of SPIONs to label BMSCs can be used for long-term observation after transplantation into damaged areas.
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells; Macrophage polarization; Spinal cord injury; Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles; Ultra-short-wave therapy
Feng Z, Lu Y, Yin Y, Wan Y, Sun S, Zhao L, et al. Ultra-Short-Wave Therapy Combined with Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation Modulates the Inflammatory Response after Spinal Cord Injury. Clin Surg. 2019; 4: 2502..