Clin Surg | Volume 2, Issue 1 | Review Article | Open Access

Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors in the 21st Century � An Update

R Kanthan1, JL Senger2*, S Ahmed3 and SC Kanthan4

1Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Canada
2Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Canada
3Division of Medical Oncology, University of Saskatchewan, Canada
4Deparmtent of Surgery, University of Saskatchewan, Canada

*Correspondance to: Jenna-Lynn Senger 

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Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (PNETs) are rare, reported to account for less than 1-2% of all pancreatic tumors. This, however, is likely an underestimation, as improved radiologic techniques and heightened awareness have resulted in an increase in the detection of incidentalomas, with estimations of true prevalence as high as 10%. The term “PNET” is an umbrella name encompasses a heterogenous group of neoplasms each with distinct clinical presentations, diagnostic radiographic features, management principles, and tumor/patient outcomes. In this context, accurate diagnosis is challenging, and management guidelines unclear. A high degree of clinical suspicion is required for best patient management. This manuscript provides a comprehensive of PNETs in the 21st century, in which we review the terminology, epidemiology classification, aetiopathogenesis, radiographic and histopathologic diagnostic features, management for localized and metastatic disease, as well as a review of features defining functional and non-functional PNETS, and finally describe prognostic features.


Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor; Insulinoma; Gastrinomas


Kanthan R, Senger JL, Ahmed S, Kanthan SC. Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors in the 21st Century � An Update. Clin Surg. 2017; 2: 1662.

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