Clin Surg | Volume 1, Issue 1 | Review Article | Open Access

Triple Negative Breast Cancer: What Surgeons Should Know

Omeed Moaven and Kirby I. Bland*

Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA

*Correspondance to: Kirby I. Bland 

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Abstract Breast cancer has been classified into different subgroups with discrete tumor behavior, prognosis and therapeutic approaches. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by lack of expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER- 2). TNBC represents a heterogeneous group of tumors with more aggressive biologic behavior and poorer prognosis. Lack of receptor expression, which excludes hormonal therapy and trastuzumab as treatment options, is a therapeutic challenge. In this manuscript, we have reviewed our current knowledge about the epidemiology and contributing risk factors of TNBC, heterogeneity in the molecular landscape, clinical course of TNBC, and current evidence on available therapeutic options and developing novel modalities such as targeted therapy. Molecular heterogeneity is an important contributing factor that could explain the discrepancies in the literature, in terms of various clinical aspects of TNBC. Genetic features should be considered and studied alongside in the prospective trials, to better understand and clinically address the heterogeneous nature of this disease.


Breast cancer; Triple negative breast cancer; BRCA


Moaven O, Bland KI. Triple Negative Breast Cancer: What Surgeons Should Know. Clin Surg. 2016; 1: 1283.

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