Clin Surg | Volume 1, Issue 1 | Review Article | Open Access

Patient-Derived Xenografts use in Cancer: A Review

David Koller, Peter Yu and Raphael E. Pollock*

Department of Surgical Oncology, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, USA

*Correspondance to: Raphael E. Pollock 

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Cell line based disease modeling, with its homogeneity and transformations caused by years of growth in petri dishes, has been underwhelming with limited information found using them successfully translating to patient care. Because of these significant problems presented by historical modelling of cancer there has been increase interest in patient-derived xenographs (PDX), which is the implantation of a portion of patient tumor into an immunodeficient mouse, as an improved model for cancer. Improved modeling attempts to increase bench to bedside transition, to improve patient care. PDXs maintain significant tumor heterogeneity and microenvironment similar to donor disease. This article reviews the use of this model to assist with direct patient care, biomarker studies, drug studies, and advancement of other techniques. As well, this article reviews the avatar/super avatar model, proband model, co-clinical trials, preclinical testing, as well as immunomodulatory considerations. This review of the model includes are historical considerations as well as current studies in the field including advantages, correlation ability, an example of subcutaneous establishment method, factors effecting establishment, characteristics, applications, limitations, shortcomings and future direction table 1.


Koller D, Yu, Pollock RE. Patient-Derived Xenografts use in Cancer: A Review. Clin Surg. 2016; 1: 1277.

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